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  • by Nicola Boulton September 03, 2022 5 min read

    Can CBD Be Used to Treat Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    Most individuals in the United States suffer from neurodegenerative disorders, where most of their body cells in the central nervous system stop functioning or die eventually. A person suffering from such a disorder lives a hard life as the diseases do not have a cure. Individuals are looking for conventional ways like CBD to help counter neurodegenerative disorders. This article explains whether CBD can treat neurodegenerative disorders.

    CBD is a plant extract that is obtained from the hemp plant. It is a pure substance with no other compound in it. Hemp plant cultivation was legalized in the United States, leading to increased commercial use of hemp-based products. They are legal because they contain more CBD and THC levels of less than 0.03%. Marijuana is not legalized and is still an illegal substance as per the FDA guidelines. CBD is used for different purposes as some use it for commercial purposes, recreational purposes, and health benefits. CBD can be found in various types, concentration, and potencies, which includes full spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and CBD isolate.

    CBD Basics

    CBD as a Phyto cannabinoid is claimed to have some therapeutic properties that can be used to counter various disorders through a mechanism of molecular nature that is not yet fully identified. An alternative therapy option for epileptic diseases, anxiety, depression, and neuroinflammation, CBD has been demonstrated in several experimental models to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, and anticonvulsant properties. With CBD's popularity, most people are using CBD to treat neurological diseases. It is seen to have neuroprotective potentiality, which is obtained from the combination of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, making it able to help treat some neurodegenerative disorders. Patients with Huntington's disease are under clinical trial with CBD combined with THC to be able to know its potential in assisting the neurological order of the disease. CBD in the body interacts with the ECS receptors CB1 and CB2, resulting in an inhibitory effect on the enzymes, which help counter some pathological conditions.

    What Are Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    It is a type of disease where the cells in the CNS dies or stop working. It is a disease that has no cure and gets worse consequently. This disorder may be genetically inherited or can be a result of stroke or tumor growth. Another cause can be individuals exposed to certain toxins and viruses or those consuming a lot of alcohol. The disease affects millions of people globally with no complete cure or remedy on the way. Some of the disorders include;

    • Parkinson’s disease
    • Huntington disease
    • Alzheimer’s disease
    • Ataxia and others

    Some symptoms are related to this disorder, which can tremendously affect a person’s life. They include;

    • Abnormal movements
    • Loose or balance and mobility
    • Fluctuation of blood pressure
    • Cognitive and memory ability loss
    • Heart conditions

    Therapeutic Properties of CBD

    CBD is among the vital component extracted from the cannabis plant, with THC being the main psychoactive component of plant extract. CBD is not psychoactive on consumption as it does not activate CB 1 receptors and can be tolerated by an individual. It has several therapeutic properties, and when combined with THC, it can enhance its beneficial properties while reducing the adverse effects of THC. Cooray et al. (2020) explained that CBD has anti-inflammatory properties in the central nervous system, making it helpful in aiding neuroinflammatory disorders. CBD also acts as a pain-relieving agent in an individual with multiple sclerosis when combined with THC. CBD aids in the treatment of epilepsy because of its anticonvulsant properties. People with various signs of cancer can benefit from CBD as it contains antitumoral properties that reduce tumor formation in a person.

    CBD As a Neuroprotective Agent

    Individual using CBD has reported positive feedback as it reduces oxidative stress and normalizes glutamate homeostasis while preventing the occurrence of an inflammatory event of local nature in an individual. According to Wang et al. (2020), CBD can restore the balance between endogenous antioxidant mechanism and oxidative events to normal, which is often interrupted in persons with neurodegenerative disorders.

    CBD and Neonatal Ischaemia

    Hypoxia ischemia can cause brain damage that turns out to affect a wider population. Perinatal asphyxia has been seen in some people with the development of severe neurological syndrome. Martínez-Orgado et al. (2021) stated that using CBD helps reduce necrotic and apoptotic damage, a neuroprotective effect related to the modulation of oxidative inflammation and stress. It also helps minimize immediate brain damage through the modulation of cerebral hemodynamic impairment and prevents seizure occurrence.

    CBD and Huntington’s Disease

    Huntington's disease is a genetically inherited disease caused by a gene mutation. Individuals suffering from this disease can primarily benefit from CBD as it contains some neuroprotective effects and properties that result from the interaction of the ECS and CNS receptors. Also, CBD has antioxidant properties that are beneficial as it helps in the activation of signaling pathways that helps in redox balance. CBD helps in reliving Huntington's symptoms rather than progressing them, thus resulting in a better improvement.

    CBD and Parkinson’s Disease

    Parkinson's disease is associated with genetic susceptibility and environmental insults. Its symptom includes bradykinesia and tremor, like relieving symptoms of bradykinesia. Patricio et al. (2020) explained that CBD is effective as a neuroprotective compound in persons who have Parkinson’s disease. With its antioxidant properties, CBD can be used in providing neuroprotection that can activate and interact with CB2 receptors giving additional benefits to an individual. CBD can also be combined with THC in aiding individuals with Parkinson's disease by helping relieve symptoms like dystonia.

    Conclusion

    CBD has turned out to be an exciting component pharmaceutically. The action of CBD in neurological interaction has been channeled through biochemical mechanisms with no side effects or toxicity from individuals using it. CBD has largely benefited individuals in many pharmaceutical areas as a potent antioxidant, helping individuals with epileptic conditions, aiding persons with neuroprotective effects in Parkinson's disease, and reducing pain and inflammation in people resulting from several health conditions, among other aspects. CBD can also be combined with THC to result in better and improved benefits in cases of multiple sclerosis. Although CBD is not regulated, individuals should be cautious about how best they can use it. One should consult a doctor before using CBD and other medications to stop adverse effects.

    References

    Cooray, R., Gupta, V., & Suphioglu, C. (2020). A review is a review of current aspects of the endocannabinoid system and targeted THC and CBD phytocannabinoids as potential therapeutics for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Molecular Neurobiology, 57(11), 4878-4890.

    Martínez-Orgado, J., Villa, M., & Del Pozo, A. (2021). Cannabidiol for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, 584533.

    Patricio, F., Morales-Andrade, A. A., Patricio-Martínez, A., & Limón, I. D. (2020). Cannabidiol as a therapeutic target: evidence of its neuroprotective and neuromodulatory function in Parkinson’s disease. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, 595635.

    Wang, G. Y., Rayner, S. L., Chung, R., Shi, B. Y., & Liang, X. J. (2020). Advances in nanotechnology-based strategies for the treatments of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Materials Today Bio, 6, 100055.

    Nicola Boulton
    Nicola Boulton


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