CBD, or cannabidiol, is a chemical compound obtained from Cannabis Sativa. This chemical has its origin in western and central Asia. Read on to learn more about CBD oil and what it's used for.
The plant is grown for medicinal purposes, such as relieving pain, reducing anxiety, and improving mood. It is obtained from hemp, a natural fiber used in textiles. This plant has over four hundred chemical components, of which about eighty are biologically active molecular chemicals, including cannabinoids. Out of these chemicals, the foremost vital cannabinoids are the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and several other cannabinoids.
When the two are compared, CBD is a non-intoxicating compound since it does not cause psychoactive effects. It possesses a considerable volume of importance associated with pharmaceutical effects. It can also be processed into gummies, capsules, and tinctures.
How Does CBD Work?
Though CBD's mechanism of action, especially the anticonvulsant effects, has not yet been confirmed, CBD is believed to possess a high affinity to cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. These receptors are a portion of the endocannabinoid system that controls the neurotransmitters in the brain and part of the body's nervous system. For this reason, CBD produces both agonistic as well as antagonistic feelings. It is partially agonistic to the serotonin receptor and the modulation of allosteric opioid receptors.
According to Millar et al. (2018), the breakdown of CBD occurs in the intestine and the liver. The bioavailability of CBD smoking is about 31%. Its half-life is 1.4 to 10.9 hours when consumed through oromucosal spraying and two to five days on chronic consumption through oral means.
Types of CBD-related Products
Products sourced from CBD may be consumed orally through the mouth or otherwise applied to the skin in the form of topical. There are variant concentrations of CBD among these products. The other orally administered CBD products include capsules and oral gummies. Topical CBD products are available in creams, balms, and lotions. Their concentrations come in various varieties.
Uses of CBD
CBD can have several effects on the body through this action on the endocannabinoid system (ECS). These effects may benefit the entire body, such as regulating the body's physical roles (homeostasis), relieving pain and inflammation, and reducing anxiety.
Most of these uses of CBD are recommended, while others are not. According to Lattanzi et al. (2021), the only scientifically prescribed drug by the FDA is Epidiolex, a CBD product prescribed to treat two rare types of epilepsy that affect younger children; Dravet and Lennox Gastaut syndromes. There is clear evidence that CBD can help individuals with disorders resulting from seizures. However, it is good to know that not all diseases are treated.
As long as studies are on the process, CBD has been identified to be effective in reducing anxiety and relieving chronic pains. It binds with the endocannabinoid system's receptors that control pain, memory, and mood. It may also help in solving other cognitive as well as physiological roles. It is equally perfect for insomnia.
According to Salehi et al. (2022), oral inhalation and topical intake of products from CBD show that it can be used to alleviate conditions such as dystonia, a condition resulting from a disorder movement. Furthermore, CBD effectively alleviates the fragile X syndrome caused by rare genetic abnormalities, ceasing from smoking, opioid withdrawal, multiple sclerosis, and other uses.
Clinical research on the amount of CBD required by patients with various conditions has not been studied. Therefore, it is difficult to recommend a precise dosage or potency that is effective since everyone has a unique biochemistry.
As mentioned, there is no precise CBD dosage, as CBD works differently among various people. However, researchers are conducting several studies as more new ideas are being worked out. However, using CBD is supposed to be alongside the manufacturers' guidelines. Therefore, one should go through the product labels keenly so that he follows the instructions in the required quantity. If the chemical is excessively consumed, it may increase the chances of interactions and other CBD-related side effects.
Moreover, CBD dosage mainly relies on its concentration, form, and strength. Also, other ingredients that increase its activity should be considered in terms of dosage.
Potential Side Effects of Using CBD
Significant side effects associated with the intake of CBD-related products include irritability, nausea, and fatigue. Furthermore, CBD does not interact safely with other drugs, such as heart rhythm medications, antihistamines, strong analgesics, antidepressants, and blood thinners. Therefore, an individual under any medication should consult the doctor before using CBD to prevent severe reactions. CBD, when consumed with other sedating drugs or products sourced from herbal trees, can raise the effects of drowsiness.
Additionally, some CBD products might possess toxic substances, for instance, bacteria or pesticides. Therefore, pregnant and breastfeeding women are cautiously advised not to consume any CBD product.
According to Etges et al. (2016), CBD is also linked to being a causative agent for suicidal thoughts. Therefore, when prescribing CBD to any patient, physicians should cautiously advise them, their caregivers, or their parents. They are supposed to look at unusual changes related to behavior or mood. Such changes require thorough evaluation to ascertain if their origin is really from the cannabinoid itself, underlying conditions, or various medications.
Undoubtedly, CBD is growing more popular due to its therapeutic effects. However, more research is required to understand its significant side effects and interactions with other drugs. It helps manage drug addictions and withdrawals by resetting the dopamine structure and curbing smoking urges. Furthermore, it does not have any psychoactive effects, although it may present minimal side effects such as nausea. The appropriate use of CBD should be advised to patients struggling with drug addictions by considering the benefits against the risks posed by using CBD.
The Bottom Line
There is a lot in CBD that is of great promise, but we need to conduct further research to understand this cannabinoid. It can alleviate certain conditions, such as sleep and chronic pain. It is equally important to carefully buy it from reputable brands since low-quality CBD has numerous side effects.
CBD is essentially among the supplements that may aid in controlling pain or insomnia. Therefore, we need to run through several assessments to understand the various CBD-infused supplements and their comprehensive therapies on the entire body. Before using CBD-related products, one must conduct proper research and consult physicians about the possible side effects associated with the chemical. Learn more about what are flavonoids?
Etges, T., Karolia, K., Grint, T., Taylor, A., Lauder, H., Daka, B., & Wright, S. (2016). An observational post-marketing safety registry of UK, Germany, and Switzerland patients who have been prescribed Sativex® (THC: CBD, nabiximols) oromucosal spray. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 12, 1667.
Millar, S. A., Stone, N. L., Yates, A. S., & O'Sullivan, S. E. (2018). A systematic review on the pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in humans. Frontiers in pharmacology, 9, 1365.
Lattanzi, S., Trinka, E., Striano, P., Rocchi, C., Salvemini, S., Silvestrini, M., & Brigo, F. (2021). Highly Purified Cannabidiol for Epilepsy Treatment: A Systematic Review of Epileptic Conditions Beyond Dravet Syndrome and Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome. CNS drugs, 35(3), 265-281.
Salehi, A., Puchalski, K., Shokoohinia, Y., Zolfaghari, B., & Asgary, S. (2022). Differentiating cannabis products: drugs, food, and supplements. Frontiers in pharmacology, 13.
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