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  • by Nicola Boulton August 29, 2022 5 min read


    As much as it has become popular, some individuals use CBD oil without understanding its effects, composition, benefits, and risk factors. This article explains some facts about the CBD oil.

    The cannabis plant comprises over 100 components called cannabinoids. These include terpenes, flavonoids, THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids like CBT and CBN. In the United States, CBD is used purposefully for recreational benefits. The number of individuals adopting CBD is rising exponentially. The widespread application of CBD oil and its products began after passing of the US 2018 farm bill, legalizing the cultivation and use of hemp plants. The hemp plant is the main component of CBD due to its low levels of THC. However, CBD remains legal if it contains less than 0.3% THC.


    What Is CBD Oil

    CBD oil is extracted from the hemp plant, mainly from flowers and leaves. It is mixed with carrier oils like coconut, MCT, or olive oil to make it absorbable in the body. The oil can be consumed in different forms depending on individual choice. These consumption methods include;


    CBD oil can be applied topically on the skin to the affected area. It can be infused into lotions and creams to increase effectiveness. Moreno et al. (2019) explained that topical application of CBD oil does not reach an individual's bloodstream but can interact with the ECS receptors on the skin to dispense its benefits.


    CBD oil is infused in capsules and ingested orally. Individuals who dislike the grassy taste of CBD and its compounds can use the capsules. The oil can also be added to food and drinks to form edibles. Gilman et al. (2022) explained that CBD capsules are very discreet and can be carried around and consumed at users’ convenience without raising attention.


    Users can place CBD oil under the tongue and absorbed through the sublingual tissues into the bloodstream. CBD manifests almost immediately through sublingually consumption.

    Risks of Using CBD Oil

    The human body generally tolerates the CBD products. However, there are mild adverse effects associated with the oil:

    CBD Oil Is Not Fully Regulated in the US

    The FDA has only approved Epidiolex for epilepsy. Lack of regulation for the many CBD products exposes the consumers to poor quality. Some products claim to contain CBD oil but have larger amounts of THC. Notably, THC can cause psychoactive effects to the consumers. Learn more about what is cbd oil used for?

    No Clinical Evidence

    The medicinal and therapeutic effects of CBD are anecdotal. While observational studies show positive results, most of these results are inconclusive. For instance, it is not clear how CBD interacts with the ECS system to restore irregular body functions. Learn more about what is organic cbd oil?

    Reactions with Other Medications

    Kogan et al. (2020) explained that CBD oil could interact with other drugs causing a negative effect. Individuals on medication should seek medical advice before purchasing CBD oil-related products.

    CBD Legality is Complicated in the US

    The US congress legalized CBD cultivation through the 2018 farm bill. However, states have individual powers to adopt specific laws governing CBD products. Currently, some states prohibit the use and cultivation of hemp.

    How Does CBD Oil Work?

    Most of the compounds extracted from the cannabis plant affect the body differently when they interact with cannabinoid receptors. The receptors are vital part of the endocannabinoid system. Human produces two receptors, CB1 and CB2; they are found all over the body and brain and help coordinate mood, movement, and pain. CB2 receptors alter pain and inflammation signals in the human body (Verrico et al., 2020)

    Benefits of CBD Oil

    Relieve chronic pain

    Cannabis-manufactured sprays with CBD oil proportion are used to treat multiple sclerosis pain. Überall (2020) explained that individuals with cancer pain could use CBD-infused medicine. According to Girach et al. (2019), CBD Oil effectively treats chronic pain as it can be topically applied to the affected area in patients with symptomatic peripheral neuropathy and placebo.

    Treat Epileptic Condition

    Pamplona et al. (2018) explained that an individual could use CBD oil to treat epileptic seizures. After the legalization of CBD in 2018, the FDA approved Epidolex, a drug manufactured from cannabis to help treat seizures from Dravet and Lennox-Gastautsyndrome, which are rare forms of epilepsy among children.

    Arthritis management

    Some of the symptoms of arthritis are loss of movement, stiffness, and pain in the joints. Arthritis treatment mostly targets relief of pain and functioning of joints. Boehnke et al. (2022) observed that CBD oil for arthritis improved sleep quality and reduced pain during movement. In addition, the oil relieved pain effects and suppressed disease activities in the body.

    What Are the Side Effects of Using CBD Oil?

    CBD oil has some mild to severe side effects depending on factors, including an individual's body weight, metabolism, and health status, among other aspects. Some of the known side effects are:

    • Appetite change
    • Diarrhea
    • Drowsiness
    • Fatigue
    • Sleep change


    CBD products have multiple health and therapeutic benefits when used properly. The products vary in the levels of THC, consumption methods, and the subsequent effect on the body. Ideally, CBD interacts with the body’s ECS to alter irregular bodily functions; these include pain, inflammation, stress, mood, and sleep. The time taken for the effects to manifest in the body depends on multiple factors, including, but not limited to body weight, metabolism rate, and existing medication. While the human body is tolerant to CBD oil, it could have mild side effects.


    Boehnke, K. F., Häuser, W., &Fitzcharles, M. A. (2022). Cannabidiol (CBD) in Rheumatic Diseases (Musculoskeletal Pain). Current Rheumatology Reports, 1-9.

    Gilman, J. M., Schmitt, W. A., Potter, K., Kendzior, B., Pachas, G. N., Hickey, S., ... &Evins, A. E. (2022). Identification of∆ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairment using functional brain imaging. Neuropsychopharmacology, 47(4), 944-952.

    Girach, A., Julian, T. H., Varrassi, G., Paladini, A., Vadalouka, A., &Zis, P. (2019). Quality of life in painful peripheral neuropathies: a systematic review. Pain Research and Management, 2019.

    Kogan, L., Hellyer, P., & Downing, R. (2020). The use of cannabidiol-rich hemp oil extract to treat canine osteoarthritis-related pain: a pilot study. AHMAD J, 58, 1-10.

    Moreno, E., Cavic, M., Krivokuca, A., Casadó, V., &Canela, E. (2019). The endocannabinoid system as a target in cancer diseases: are we there yet?. Frontiers in pharmacology, 10, 339.

    Pamplona, F. A., Da Silva, L. R., &Coan, A. C. (2018). Potential clinical benefits of CBD-rich cannabis extracts over purified CBD in treatment-resistant epilepsy: observational data meta-analysis. Frontiers in neurology, 759.

    Überall, M. A. (2020). A review of scientific evidence for THC: CBD oromucosal spray (nabiximols) in chronic pain management. Journal of pain research, 13, 399.

    Verrico, C. D., Wesson, S., Konduri, V., Hofferek, C. J., Vazquez-Perez, J., Blair, E., ... &Halpert, M. M. (2020). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of daily cannabidiol for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis pain. Pain, 161(9), 2191.




    Nicola Boulton
    Nicola Boulton

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